What does staghorn calculus mean?

A staghorn calculus is a type of kidney stone. (Calculus in this case means a stone. The plural is calculi or stones.) A staghorn calculus is the name given to a branching kidney stone, and may form if you have repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs).

What is the cause of a staghorn calculus?

These kidney stones can occur either due to low water intake, improper uric acid metabolism, renal acidosis, or excessive intake of proteins. People suffering from chronic diarrhea, uncontrolled diabetes, and malabsorption syndrome are also at a high risk of contracting this condition.

What bacteria is associated with staghorn calculi?

E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples.

What are staghorn calculus made of?

Most staghorn calculi are infection stones composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Sometimes, cystine, uric acid, whewellite and brushite stones also assume a staghorn configuration when located in the kidney. It is very important in stone crushing to know the composition and architecture of the stones.

Can you live with a staghorn kidney stone?

Due to the significant morbidity and potential mortality attributed to staghorn stones, prompt assessment and treatment is mandatory. Conversely, conservative treatment has been shown to carry a mortality rate of 28% in 10-year period and 36% risk of developing significant renal impairment.

How serious is a staghorn kidney stone?

Over time, an untreated staghorn calculus is likely to destroy the kidney and/or cause life-threatening infections (sepsis). Complete removal of the stone is important in order to eradicate infection, relieve obstruction, prevent further stone growth, and preserve kidney function.

Is Klebsiella associated with kidney stones?

Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Providencia, Serratia subspecies and Staphylococci accounted for the remaining cases. Calcium oxalate stones are the most common form of kidney stones and there is emerging evidence they are caused by bacteria, specifically nanobacteria.

What foods cause staghorn kidney stones?

Avoid stone-forming foods: Beets, chocolate, spinach, rhubarb, tea, and most nuts are rich in oxalate, which can contribute to kidney stones. If you suffer from stones, your doctor may advise you to avoid these foods or to consume them in smaller amounts.

What are the symptoms of staghorn calculus?

Symptoms may include flank pain classic for renal colic, fever, urinary symptoms (eg, frequency, dysuria), and hematuria (either gross or microscopic). However, struvite stones rarely manifest as a solitary ureteral stone with acute renal colic in the absence of prior intervention.

How do you treat staghorn stone?

Generally, the gold standard treatment for staghorn stones is surgical with a view to achieve stone-free collecting system and preserve renal function. Other non-surgical options are usually considered in combination with surgery or as monotherapy only if patients are surgically unfit.

Can bacteria cause kidney stones?

Scientists now have inside information to use in the fight against Proteus mirabilis — a nasty bacterium that can cause kidney stones, as well as hard-to-treat urinary tract infections.

Can kidney stones contain bacteria?

Studies from 1973 to the present in both Asia and North America have demonstrated that bacteria can be isolated from approximately 15–70% of stones following clinical culture (Figure 1) (25-28).

Is kidney stone a bacterial infection?

Struvite stones are virtually always caused by a urinary tract infection (UTI) due to an enzyme secreted by certain types of bacteria. Because people with shorter urethras have more UTIs, they also tend to develop more struvite stones. These stones can grow very large and block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.

Can bacteria grow on a kidney stone?

Bacteria can be cultured from urinary stones Studies from 1973 to the present in both Asia and North America have demonstrated that bacteria can be isolated from approximately 15–70% of stones following clinical culture (Figure 1) (25-28).

Can a kidney stone become infected?

Blocked ureter and kidney infection A kidney stone that blocks the ureter can lead to a kidney infection. This is because waste products are unable to pass the blockage, which may cause a build-up of bacteria.

What is the meaning of staghorn calculus?

Medical Definition of staghorn calculus : a large renal calculus with multiple irregular branches Learn More About staghorn calculus

What is the epidemiology of staghorn calculi?

Epidemiology. Staghorn calculi are the result of recurrent infection and are thus more commonly encountered in women 6, those with renal tract anomalies, reflux, spinal cord injuries, neurogenic bladder or ileal ureteral diversion.

What are staghorn calculi (coral calculi)?

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, are renal calculi that obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calyces, thus resembling the horns of a stag. For a general discussion of renal calculi please refer to nephrolithiasis. Article: Epidemiology.

What are infection stones and staghorn calculi?

These stones are often referred to as ‘infection stones’ since they are strongly associated with urinary tract infections with urea splitting organisms. Cystine stones, although much less common, may also develop into staghorn calculi.

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