What is camber in hot strip mill?
The compensation of the camber is the main task of the control system that we are going. to present. The control variable to be exploited to this purpose is represented by the tilting. of the work rolls in the roughing mill i.e. the difference between the gap at the operator. and drive side SSS −=∆ (see Figure 5).
What causes camber in sheet metal?
Camber is caused by one side of a sheet being elongated more than the other side during perforation or leveling. Camber often results from having unequal side margins on a sheet.
What causes camber in steel coils?
Camber. Camber can result from stresses in the master coil. If the camber is always in one direction, a good way to check if the camber is caused by material defects is to slit the master coil upside down. If the camber is in the opposite direction, the camber has been caused by stresses in the master coil.
What is camber in rolling process?
The convex shape of sheet is mainly due to deflection or bending of rolls like a beam. To counter this, camber is ground on rolls in the opposite direction so that after deflection the surface in contact with the sheet becomes flat.
What is the purpose of beam camber?
Cambering beams allow smaller beams to be used in place of larger beams to support the same load. This results in lighter construction, and more cost savings.
How do you measure camber on a sheet of steel?
Camber measurement is taken by placing an 8 ft. straight edge on the concave side and measuring the greatest distance between the sheet edge and the straight edge. Due to the nature of the perforating process, camber can be as great as 2˝ in 20 ft.
What is difference between camber and sweep?
When discussing structural steel, camber and sweep refer to different ways of bending or curving sections of steel. A camber is a curve in the vertical plane, where a sweep is a curve in the horizontal plane.
How do you check camber on a coil?
Camber measurement is taken by placing an 8 ft. straight edge on the concave side and measuring the greatest distance between the sheet edge and the straight edge. Due to the nature of the perforating process, camber can be as great as 2˝ in 20 ft. when processing coil to coil.
What is positive camber?
If the top of the wheel is farther out than the bottom (that is, tilted away from the axle), it is called positive camber; if the bottom of the wheel is farther out than the top, it is called negative camber.
What is angle of bite in rolling?
In rolling metals where all the force is transmitted through the rolls, maximum attainable angle between roll radius at the first contact and the roll centers. If the operating angle is less, it is called the contact angle or roll angle. Ref: ASM, 1.
How do you camber a beam?
How is a beam cambered? Cold cambering is the most common method of inducing cam- ber on a beam. A common method is to place the beam in a press that is about 22′ to 24′ long with two hydraulic rams spaced at the third points. The rams push the stress in the beam past the yield point, which produces a permanent strain.
What is joist camber?
To compensate for deflections, structural steel beams and joists may be fabricated with a slight upward curvature, commonly referred to as camber. Cambering.
What is the purpose of a camber in construction?
Camber is used in long spans with the purpose of counteracting deflection due to load. Camber is used in bridge construction as well as buildings, churches and decks because calculations can be made to offset particularly heavy loads of weight, thereby dictating the actual upward curve or camber to be used.
Why is Cambering done?
The obvious purpose of cambering is, to take straight steel beams and convert them to vertical arcs. Compared to cambering straight structural steel in the shop, producing and transporting structural steel with the necessary curvature simply isn’t in the same realm of efficiency.
What is positive and negative camber?
Camber is described as negative when the top of the tires tilt inward. Consequently, when the top of the tires tilt away from the vehicle it is considered positive. Camber is used to distribute load across the entire tread.
How do you calculate camber?
To calculate the road camber angle, take the inverse tangent of the height divided by the base.
Is positive or negative camber better?
Because negative camber allows the car’s tyre to be kept perpendicular to the road as the vehicle moves along, it will enable drivers to achieve a better grip on the road, reduce wheel vibration, and improve vehicle handling.
What is Draught in rolling?
Draft is the difference between the starting thickness and the final thickness as the workpiece passes between the two opposing rolls.
What is forward slip in rolling?
The forward slip in strip rolling was defined as the relative difference between the roll surface speed and strip exit speed. It was always an important parameter because of its significant influence on friction and tension control.
What is camber used for?
Camber is used to distribute load across the entire tread. Improper camber can make the tire wear on one edge and may cause the vehicle to pull to the side that has the most positive camber.
Why do beams have camber?
What is residual camber?
The term “residual camber” is sometimes used to describe a contingency provided in addition to the self-weight deflection to compensate for live load effects or to provide a hogging profile.
What are different types of camber?
3. Types of Camber in Road Pavement
- Straight Line Camber/ Sloped Camber. Straight Line Camber consists of two slopes originating from the edges and joining at the center of the carriageway.
- Two Straight Line Camber.
- Parabolic Camber (Barrel Camber)
- Composite Camber.
What is structural steel Cambering?
Cambering is the curving of a beam about the strong axis of the member, while, sweep applies to the curving of a member about the weaker axis. Cambering is typically performed by a steel fabricator after the member has been cut to length and punched or drilled.
How is the camber of a strip generated?
that the camber is generated by a different elongation of the two sides of the strip. In respectively. For the sake of simplicity it is useful to introduce the elongation ratio as the
Is strip camber killing your progressive die stamping business?
In the competitive world of progressive die stamping, slitting-induced strip camber can quickly turn a profitable job into a losing venture. This can be especially true for large-volume part runs. Problems such as misfeeds, off-center hits, and inadequate transfer webbing can be caused by camber.
What causes the cambered shape of a slitter strip?
If material tension is allowed to vary widely, the strip may wander, which will promote a cambered shape. Similarly, the other tensioning devices on the slitter also must be controlled, such as the drag board and any anti-skid devices. Too much drag or tension can “taffy-pull” the material, resulting in both camber and thickness variations.
What is the difference between a wedge and a camber?
The wedge is defined in terms of the difference between the operator side-drive side. thicknesses ( dsos hhH −= ) whereas the camber is the curvature of the strip (see Figure 2. and Figure 3 for the wedge definition and camber definition respectively).