Which catalyst is used in cumene process?
Cumene (isopropylbenzene) is presently produced from benzene and propylene using either solid phosphoric acid or anhydrous aluminium chloride or zeolite as catalyst.
Which catalyst is used for phenol production by cumene process?
In addition to the cumene synthesis process, about 3% of phenol is derived from coal. Scheme 1. Cumene (isopropylbenzene), required for the Hock process, is produced25 by alkylation of benzene with propylene over a solid phosphoric acid catalyst (UOP-process).
How is zeolite used as a catalyst?
Zeolites can be shape-selective catalysts either by transition state selectivity or by exclusion of competing reactants on the basis of molecular diameter. They have also been used as oxidation catalysts. The reactions can take place within the pores of the zeolite, which allows a greater degree of product control.
What are zeolites give the uses of zeolites?
Zeolites can be used to remove the hardness of the water. When the hard water sample is made to pass through zeolite channels the calcium and magnesium ions get replaced by sodium ions. They can be used as a catalyst. For example, it catalyses isomerization of meta-xylene to para-xylene.
What is zeolite process?
The zeolite softening process is used for removing both the temporary and permanent hardness of the water by precipitating the calcium and magnesium present in water as insoluble zeolites. In this process of softening of water, there is an exchange of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion with the help of zeolite.
How is cumene prepared from benzene?
(i)When benzene reacts with propylene in presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, it forms cumene. The reaction is known as Friedel –Crafts alkylation and it can be written as, Cumene is mainly used for the preparation of organic compounds like phenol and acetone.
How is phenol manufactured from cumene give equation?
The catalyst is cobalt naphthenate. Temperature is 423 K. The product cumene hydroperoxide is heated with dilute sulphuric acid. It decomposes to phenol and by product acetone.
What are the two main uses of zeolite?
Solution : Zeolites are used – (i) for softening of hard water, (ii) as a moleculer sieve to separtate molecules of different size.
What is the zeolite process?
What are the advantages of zeolite process?
Advantages of zeolite process: (i) it removes the hardness almost completely and water of about l0 ppm hardness is produced. (ii) The equipment used is compact, occupying a small space. (iii) No impurities are precipitated, so there is no danger of sludge formation in the treated-water at a later stage.
What does zeolite process remove?
Which of the following is by product of cumene process?
Byproducts of the cumene process to produce phenol and acetone are acetophenone and alpha-methylstyrene.
Which reagents is used for preparation of cumene?
In this first step, cumene is prepared by reacting isopropanol or a mixture of isopropanol and propene with benzene. The conversion of benzene into cumene is based on an alkylation of benzene by means of an alkylating reagent.
How phenol is prepared by cumene process?
Preparation of Phenols from Cumene Cumene is an organic compound obtained by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with propylene. Upon oxidation of cumene (isopropylbenzene) in the presence of air, cumene hydroperoxide is obtained. Upon further treatment of cumene hydroperoxide with dilute acid, phenols are obtained.
How is zeolite used in agriculture?
Zeolite incorporation in soil was found to increase crop yields and to promote nutrient use efficiency. Other possible uses being investigated include applications as a carrier of slow-release fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides, and as a trap for heavy metals in soils.
Which water is used for zeolite process?
For softening of water by zeolite process, hard water is percolated at a specified rate through a bed of zeolite. Zeolite holds sodium ion loosely and can be represented as Na2Z, where Z represents insoluble radical frame work.
What is the principle of zeolite process?
Principle- Zeolite is micro-porous mineral which is used as catalyst in many industrial purposes such as water purification and air purification. Advantages- It removes the hardness almost completely (about 10 ppm hardness only). The process automatically adjust itself for variation in hardness of incoming water.
What is the disadvantages of zeolite process?
Disadvantages of zeolite process: Highly acidic water isn’t suitable for use in light of the fact that it influences the minerals. Zeolites of iron and manganese can’t be effectively recovered. Raw material must be liberated from suspended polluting influences. The water ought not be turbid.
What is the reagent which will react cumene to give phenol?
What is the reagent which will react with cumene to give phenol? Explanation: Upon oxidation of cumene (isopropylbenzene) in presence of air (oxygen), cumene hydroperoxide is obtained. Upon further treatment of cumene hydroperoxide with dilute acid phenols are obtained.