What is the difference between XRF and ICP?
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is an analytical technique used to measure elements at trace levels in biological fluids. It is destructive technique. Where as XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials.
What is XRF soil testing?
Overview. For decades, field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has provided rapid, on-site measurements of metals contamination in soil. The purpose of such assessments was the identification and remediation of contaminated soil.
How do you prepare XRD powder samples?
Usually powdered XRD samples are prepared by hand grinding using a mortar and pestle. The mortar and pestle can be made out of a variety of materials such as agate, corundum, or mullite.
Why is XRF better than AAS?
Taking into account the initial costs of instrument and infrastructure, and running costs of gasses, acids, electricity and waste disposal, XRF benchtop spectrometers are far more cost-effective than ICP and AAS. XRF does not require the use of expensive acids, gasses and fume hoods.
How do you test for lead in soil?
Testing Soil Soil can be tested for lead in several ways. The primary approach is to send samples to a laboratory that can identify the concentration of lead in the soil. Most laboratories associated with State university agricultural departments and agricultural extension offices offer soil testing for lead at cost.
Can XRF detect arsenic?
Portable XRF technology has been shown to be a promising method that can be used in the field to measure soil levels of arsenic (U.S. EPA 1990; U.S. EPA 1998; U.S. EPA 2004), even at trace concentrations (low ppm) (Parsons et al.
How do you prepare a clay sample for XRD analysis?
To prepare samples for X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, specimens of mud and mudstone were gently crumbled and placed in a glass beaker with 3% H2O2 for at least 24 hr until digestion of organic matter stopped. We then added 250 mL of 4 g/L sodium hexametaphosphate to disperse the clays.
What elements can be measured with XRF?
X-ray fluorescence can detect and measure most elements in the periodic table running from Uranium, the heaviest element, all the way to lighter elements such as magnesium and beryllium. This means XRF can determine the elemental composition of any material.
What level of lead is acceptable in soil?
Soil contains lead concentrations less than 50 parts per million (ppm), but soil lead levels in many urban areas exceed 200 ppm [AAP 1993]. The EPA’s standard for lead in bare soil in play areas is 400 ppm by weight and 1200 ppm for non-play areas [EPA 2000a].
How do you remove lead from soil?
Wheat, corn and other grains
- Wheat, corn and other grains can also be very effective at removing lead from the soil.
- Other grasses and grains that can be effective at phytoremediation of lead include tapegrass, Highland bent grass and rapeseed (canola).
What two elements interfere with the accurate determination of arsenic in soils?
However, due to limitations of this mathematical technique, arsenic concentrations can not be effectively calculated for samples with a Pb/As ratio of greater than 10:1 (US EPA, 1998). also influenced by the presence of soil moisture and the presence of lead.
How accurate is an XRF gun?
To alleviate concerns, we conducted a study, tested samples, and compared XRF precious metals analysis with fire assay. We analysed six large, flat items made of different types of gold with various grades and various compositions, and we found that accuracy was typically within 0.1 or 0.2% of the fire assay results.
How do you prepare a sample for XRD?
How do you identify clay minerals in XRD?
Identification of Clays using XRD Basal reflections give d-spacing of the basal layer which represent the thickness of the silicate layers and the unit cell often contains multiple layers. Clay mineral peaks can generally be distinguished by the width halfway up the peak (i.e. the full width at half maximum, FWHM).