What is Flame cell plasma cell?

Flame cells are plasma cells with a distinctive pinkish hue in the outer rim of the cytoplasm. This appearance is thought to be the result of precipitated immunoglobulin. These cells can be found in plasma cell dyscrasias as well as cases of chronic infection or inflammation.

What is a flame cell Multiple Myeloma?

Flame cells are atypical plasma cells with irregular cytoplasmic projections that stain bright purple-red with Wright-Giemsa stain. They are usually associated with IgA myeloma but may be seen in non-IgA myelomas, MGUS, as well as reactive plasmacytosis.

What is a disorder of plasma cells?

Plasma cell diseases are a type of blood cancer in which plasma cells become malignant and can cause damage to the bones, kidneys, heart, bone marrow and immune system, and as a result can make patients sick.

What is the function of flame cells?

The main function of flame cells is osmoregulation and excretion.

Where are plasma cells found in lymph nodes?

Plasma cells are present near the necrotic areas along with histiocytes, lymphocytes, immunoblasts, and abundant karyorrhectic debris. In contrast to Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, neutrophils may be present and plasma cell infiltrate is more common.

Is multiple myeloma and plasma cell myeloma the same thing?

A type of cancer that begins in plasma cells (white blood cells that produce antibodies). Also called Kahler disease, multiple myeloma, and myelomatosis.

What is the difference between plasma cell myeloma and multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma cells also damage and weaken the bone. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which abnormal plasma cells or cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. The plasma cells also make an antibody protein, called M protein, that is not needed by the body and does not help fight infection.

Is plasma cell dyscrasia fatal?

Serious and potentially life-threatening paraneoplastic complications can occur in plasma cell dyscrasias regardless of tumor cell burden, myeloma protein levels, or the presence of other criteria suggesting the dyscrasia has entered a malignant phase.

Why are flame cells called flame cells?

Their excretory system consists of two tubules connected to a highly branched duct system. The cells in the tubules are called flame cells (or protonephridia) because they have a cluster of cilia that looks like a flickering flame when viewed under the microscope, as illustrated in Figure 22.10a.

What is the function of flame cells in which phylum are they found?

Flame cells are excretory organs, present in the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms).

What are plasma cells and their function?

Plasma cells are differentiated B-lymphocyte white blood cells capable of secreting immunoglobulin, or antibody. These cells play a significant role in the adaptive immune response, namely, being the main cells responsible for humoral immunity.

How do plasma cells become activated?

Mature B and T cells exit the primary lymphoid organs and are transported via the bloodstream to the secondary lymphoid organs, where they become activated by contact with foreign materials, or antigens.

How do you test for plasma cell dyscrasia?

Which tests are available to monitor plasma cell dyscrasias? Quantitative monoclonal protein tests are used to monitor response to therapy and disease progression. Quantitative tests include serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), serum free light chain (SFLC), and urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP)‚Äč measurements.

What is the treatment for plasma cell dyscrasia?

The use of serotherapy to treat patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) has been sought by us and others. Candidate antigens that have been targeted or proposed for targeting in PCDs include the immunoglobulin idiotype, CD19, CD38, CD54, CD126, HM1. 24, and Muc-1 core protein.

What is function of flame cells?

How does a flame cell work?

Flame cells function like a kidney, removing waste materials through filtration. The cilia propel waste matter down the tubules and out of the body through excretory pores that open on the body surface; cilia also draw water from the interstitial fluid, allowing for filtration.

What are plasma cell dyscrasias?

Plasma cell dyscrasias can lead to a deposition of light-chain immunoglobulins in the tissues. They are most commonly seen in the kidneys and less frequently in the skin and lungs.6,7 Involvement of the liver is a rare finding and can lead to hepatic dysfunction. Clinical findings include hepatomegaly and altered liver function tests.

What are the renal lesions of plasma cell dyscrasias (CDs)?

The renal lesions of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias present with a variety of glomerular, tubular, and vascular lesions. Proteinaceous casts are common in all forms of chronic interstitial nephritis.

Which tests are performed in the workup of plasma cell dyscrasia?

The presence of a plasma cell dyscrasia must be investigated with serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis; generally patients present with an IgG or IgA light-chain monoclonal gammopathy. Endocrinological abnormalities must be searched with assessment of thyrotropin, glucose, and sex hormone levels.

What are the types of plasma cell dyscrasia-associated amyloidosis?

There are two different types of plasma cell dyscrasia-associated amyloidosis syndromes: amyloid light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) in which amyloid deposits consist of free light chains and amyloid heavy chain amyloidosis (AH amyloidosis) in which amyloid deposits contain only free heavy chains.

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