## What is nuisance covariate?

Estimates of head movement (and transformations based on these) Dummy or “spike” regressors to model images that are likely outliers. Signals from regions assumed to contain no true signal but capture spatially distributed noise, like the ventricles (CSF space)

## What is the meaning of nuisance variables?

A nuisance variable is an unwanted variable that is typically correlated with the hypothesized independent variable within an experimental study but is typically of no interest to the researcher. It might be a characteristic of the participants under study or any unintended influence on an experimental manipulation.

How do you deal with nuisance variables?

Ways to minimize nuisance variables

1. Blocking: if your variable is known and controllable, you can add it to your experimental design as another independent variable.
2. Statistical control: if your variable is known but not controllable by blocking, use ANCOVA or partial correlation to hold the unwanted variable constant.

What are nuisance Regressors?

Nuisance regressors include cardiac and respiratory activity derived time courses (Birn et al., 2008; Chang et al., 2009), head motion parameters, Legendre polynomials to model scanner drift, signals from white-matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) regions, and a whole brain global signal (GS) (Liu et al., 2017).

### What is nuisance regression?

Nuisance regression seeks to attenuate non-neural BOLD fluctuations from measurable noise sources such as scanner drift and head motion, as well as periodic physiological signals (e.g., heartbeat and respiration; Birn et al., 2008; Chang et al., 2009), whereas bandpass filtering suppresses all variability in a range of …

### What are the examples of extraneous variable?

Example: Extraneous variables In your experiment, these extraneous variables can affect the science knowledge scores:

• Participant’s major (e.g., STEM or humanities)
• Participant’s interest in science.
• Demographic variables such as gender or educational background.
• Time of day of testing.
• Experiment environment or setting.

What is an example of a nuisance variable?

Participant characteristics and environmental conditions often are nuisance variables. For example, individuals in a learning study who are distracted by noise in a nearby room may not perform as well as they would otherwise.

How do you identify nuisance variables?

Nuisance variable is an unwanted factor which may affect the dependent variable in an experiment. Examples of this type of extraneous variable (hyperlink) include environmental conditions such as noise and temperature and participant characteristics such as mood swings and physical health.

#### What is nuisance Regressor in fMRI?

In the last decade, nuisance regression has been a popular preprocessing strategy to remove motion artifact in rs-fMRI data. A set of motion regressors, referred as nuisance regressors, is first specified to characterize motion-related fluctuations in the data.

#### What is Global Signal regression?

Global signal regression (GSR) is the removal of the global signal from the time series of each voxel through linear regression. This procedure was originally developed for and applied to task-based fMRI data (Aguirre et al., 1998, Macey et al., 2004, Zarahn et al., 1997).

What is a nuisance function?

In statistics, a nuisance parameter is any parameter which is not of immediate interest but which must be accounted for in the analysis of those parameters which are of interest. The classic example of a nuisance parameter is the variance, σ2, of a normal distribution, when the mean, μ, is of primary interest.

What are the effects of nuisance?

A nuisance can be any action or failure to act, which interferes with people’s use and enjoyment of land or property, or that could have a negative effect on health. Causes of nuisances include noise, odour and smoke. If you cause but fail to deal with a nuisance problem you could face legal action and a fine.

## Are covariates confounders?

Covariates are other independent variables that may or may not predict outcomes. A covariate may or may not be confounder.

## What is covariate in research?

A covariate is a continuous variable that is expected to change (“vary”) with (“co”) the outcome variable of a study. Generally speaking, a covariate can refer to any continuous variable that is expected to correlate with the outcome variable of interest.

What is Global signal MRI?

(1997), who defined the global signal as the mean time course computed over all voxels within the brain. While the global signal can be calculated from the raw image time series, it is usually computed after some degree of preprocessing. However, the extent of the pre-processing can vary greatly across studies.

What is a global signal?

A dedicated global input pin-driven or logic-driven signal that passes through the global routing on a device before performing its specified function.

### What is nuisance rate?

A nuisance fee is a fee, fine, or penalty which is charged to deter an action, rather than to compensate for the costs of that action.